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Evidence: A review

A.  Types of Laws

1.    Define these types of laws and give an example:

a.    Constitutional law

b.    Statutory law

c.    Common or case law

d.    Civil law

e.    Criminal law

f.     Equity law

g.    Administrative law

B.   Types of Evidence:

1.    Compare and contrast direct and indirect evidence?

2.    Define these common types of evidence: Testimony Evidence and Physical Evidence.

3.    Define the following types of physical evidence and provide 2 examples for each:

a.    Trace evidence

b.    Transient evidence

c.    Pattern evidence

d.    Conditional evidence

e.    Transfer evidence

f.     Associative evidence

C.  The Significance of Physical Evidence:

1.    List and define the two methods used by forensic scientists when examining physical evidence.

2.    To permit positive identification, testing procedures used by a forensic scientist must meet what two conditions?

3.    Describe the two steps in the process of comparison. What question does each step attempt to answer?

4.    Define individual and class characteristics. Provide 3 of evidence with individual characteristics and 3 examples of evidence with class characteristics.

5.    Explain the product rule. How can the product rule be used to determine whether two blood samples come from the same source?

D.   Evidence Databases:

1.    What are IAFIS, NIBIN and CODIS?

2.    Describe the purpose of the IAFIS, NIBIN and the CODIS. How are they used during CSI?

E.   The Murder Scene, Death Investigations: One task that often confronts the crime-scene investigator is determining the time of a victimÕs death. Estimating time of death draws on various skills of the criminalist, including observation, deductive and inductive reasoning, knowledge of bodily processes, and even knowledge of the life cycles of nonhuman animals.

1.    List and describe 3 physical and/or chemical changes that occur in the body that enable a forensic pathologist to determine time of death.

2.     Explain how these indicators are used to determine the time of death.

a.    Algor Mortis

b.    Livor Mortis

c.    Rigor Mortis

d.    Contents of the Digestive Tract

e.    Clues from the eye

f.     Animal clues 

g.    Skeletal remains