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Created By: Kienna Knowles

Course: EDUC 6625-T1002 Habits of Mind: Thinking Skills

Course Instructor: Dr. Ashraf Esmail

Outcome G2: Plans and designs developmentally appropriate and subject accurate learning experiences to support diverse needs of learners.

Rationale:

This lesson was created during EDUC 6625: Habits of Mind: Thinking Skills and it is a clear and succinct representation of this educator’s purpose and objectives for students. Through reflection of personal educational experiences, pedagogy and current professional classroom experience, this leaner created a lesson that incorporated various habits of mind that stimulate self-directed learning via technology integration. More importantly, this lesson is student-driven and standards-based (meeting both science and technology standards).

The following science lesson was designed for this learner’s Biology II (Biotechnology) honors students. This lesson contains essential questions, enthralling activities and an assessment tool. Also, the lesson plan contains clear learning objectives with a direct instructional focus. It is this learner’s philosophy that class activities should provide all students with practical applications of material presented during class discussions. The student activities in the lesson were created to build and enhance science skills by incorporating the use of visual aids; collaborative group research, presentations and discussions; modeling, and laboratory experiences. Collectively these activities can elicit habits of mind that promote self-directed learning.

This educator’s goal is to empower students, including social development, by providing an educational environment that fosters self-directed learning, self-monitoring, self-modification and self-management. The educational environment is an excellent place to encourage and elicit habits of minds. During the development of this lesson, this learner was granted the opportunity to generate new experiences and activities that will enhance student learning. Particularly from the ideas and insights gained through pedagogy this learner was able to infuse various habits of minds into student activities. Ultimately, this lesson will allowed students to attain skills and strategies that enable optimal performance while learning to face challenges.

Title: Lesson Plans That Encourage Habits of Mind

Lesson: Genetic Engineering: “Cell Transformation”

GRADE LEVEL: 11 and 12

SUBJECT AREA: SCIENCE - High

COURSE: BIOLOGY II (BIOTECHNOLOGY) HONORS

DESCRIPTION / ABSTRACT OF LESSON: In previous genetic engineering lessons student learned about gene expression and why it is important to regulate gene expression. Additionally, students identified the types of gene mutations that lead to various genetic diseases. In this lesson students will learn "Cell Transformation" and explain how this process leads to gene cloning and gene expression research and regulation.

OBJECTIVE (S):

1. Describe what happens during transformation.

2. Define recombinant DNA technology and explain how it is used to clone a gene of interest and create transgenic organisms.

3. Explain how to determine if a transformation experiment has been successful.

4. Explain how cell transformation can lead to gene regulation.

TEACHER MATERIALS: Introduction to Biotechnology Textbook, Computer with Internet, Neo SciLinks CD-ROM and LCD Projector or Promethean Board

STUDENT MATERIALS Introduction to Biotechnology Textbook, Computer with Internet and Neo SciLinks CD-ROM

TECHNOLOGY: Textbook CD-ROM for Visual Aids Essential Web sites:

• BioTechniques: www.BioTechniques.com • Access Excellence: www.accessexcellence.org • DNA Learning Center: www.dnalc.org • National Center for Biotechnology Information: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov • Howard Hughes Medical Institute: Virtual Labs http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/vlabs/

DURATION: Flexible (5-7 60 Minute Periods) (four- 90 minute Blocks)

ESSENTIAL QUESTION (S):

1. What happens during cell transformation?

2. How can you tell if a transformation experiment has been successful?

3. How are transgenic organisms made and what is their purpose?

KEY VOCABULARY: Textbook highlighted key terms and virtual laboratory glossary list.

GROUPING FOR INSTRUCTION: Whole Group

LESSON LEAD IN / OPENING: • Textbook Vocabulary Preview: Review key vocabulary with students • Recap previous genetic engineering lesson • Discuss the essential questions.

STUDENT ACTIVITIES

Build Science Skills: Using Visuals

• Use a diagram to reinforce the process of transforming bacteria with recombinant DNA.

• Use a diagram to show how genetic markers are used in transforming plants

Build Science Skills: Applying and Connecting Concepts

• Place students into groups to describe why researchers might use transformed bacteria. Allow students to use essential web sites to collect accurate information.

• Student groups will present real examples of how scientists use transformation in various areas including (medical, aquatic, agricultural, forensics, etc).

Build Science Skills: Using Models

• Students will model (by making computer simulations, posters, 3-D models) the changes made to a DNA molecule when an animal cell is transformed.

Build Science Skills: Using Laboratory Activities

• Students will conduct a virtual lab that will familiarize them with science and techniques used to make transgenic flies.

DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION:

English Language Learners: assess how well students understand transformation by giving them the opportunity to explain the three different processes in their own words. This can be accomplished using small discussion groups. Students can use the essential web sites, figures and other visual aids in their explanations. Also, allow students to use their native languages to help them convey their understanding of the concepts.

Advanced Learners Students: will learn more about how scientists use transformation in the real world via researching essential web sites. Encourage students to use library, Internet sources and other technologies to research examples of how transformation is used. Possible topics include producing medicines, producing insect-resistant plants, or determining gene function. Students will prepare models, poster and computer presentation about their findings. Also, allowing students to conduct virtual lab activities will familiarize them with the materials and techniques used to construct transgenic organisms.

LESSON CLOSURE: Evaluate understanding via student group presentations and virtual laboratory reports.

ASSESSMENT: Students will complete the Section Assessment for this lesson. FLORIDA SUNSHINE STATE

STANDARDS and ISTE/NETS STANDARDS:

Florida Sunshine State FL Science Standards

Strand H:The Nature of Science

SC.H.3.4.1: The student understands that science, technology, and society are interwoven and interdependent.

SC.H.3.4.2: The students knows that technological problems often create a demand for new scientific knowledge and that new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in a way that advances science.

SC.H.3.4.5: The student knows that the value of a technology may differ for different people and at different times.

Strand F: Processes of Life

SC.F.2.4.2: The student knows that every cell contains a “blueprint” coded in DNA molecules that specify how proteins and genes are regulated.

ISTE/NETS Standards

• Students demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature and operation of technology systems.

• Students understand the ethical, cultural, and societal issues related to technology.

• Students practice responsible use of technology systems, information, and software.

• Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity.

• Students use a variety of media and formats to communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences.

• Students use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources.

• Students evaluate and select new information resources and technological innovations based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

Lesson Plans That Encourage Habits of Mind

The preceding science lesson was designed for this learner’s Biology II (Biotechnology) honors students, in the 11th and 12th grades, at Blanche Ely High School. Blanche Ely High School is a general science, medical science and engineering magnet school, within the Broward County School District, that offers unique science courses. For the past four years, this leaner has been an innovate educator in the Blanche Ely High School science and engineering magnet program.

This science lesson contains essential questions, enthralling activities and an assessment tool. Also, the lesson plan contains clear learning objectives with a direct instructional focus. The learning objectives and instructional focus align with the Florida Department of Education Sunshine State Standards (SSS) for science. Implementation of Sunshine State Standards is regulated by the state and the local school districts.

Additionally, this lesson plan incorporates differentiated learning based on standards provided by the National Science Teacher Association (NSTA) and Florida Department of Education English for Speakers of Other Language (ESOL) strategies. More importantly, activities in this lesson encourage the use of technology. According to the National Education Technology Standards [NETS] (2005) is extremely important in this technology driven society. The use of technology, within the various activities, aligns with National Education Technology Standards (NETS) for educators and students. NETS (2005) supports that students should use technology at six different levels. In this lesson students use: basic technology operations and concepts; technology tools for productivity; technology research tools; and technology problem-solving and decision-making tools.

Learning Activities and Habits of Mind

It is this learner’s philosophy that class activities and laboratory investigations should provide all students with practical applications of material presented during class discussions. The student activities in this lesson were created to build and enhance science skills by incorporating the use of visual aids; collaborative group research, presentations and discussions; modeling, and laboratory experiences. The investigations and activities in this lesson plan stimulate student’s inquiry and critical thinking skills, enabling them to connect various science concepts while eliciting various habits of the minds. In this learner’s opinion each of the activities (in this lesson) can elicit all of the habits of the minds. However, in this paper those habits of mind that hold significant importance will be discussed.

Visuals tools are excellent for constructing knowledge (Costa and Kallick, 2000). One activity (in this lesson) allows students to use diagrams to reinforce the process of transforming bacteria with recombinant DNA and to show how genetic markers are used in transforming plants. According to Costa and Kallick, (2001) visual aids enable students to experience knowledge using their sensory pathways: gustatory, olfactory, tactile, kinesthetic, auditory and visual to process information into the brain. Providing students with activities that encourage the interaction with content through a variety of senses facilitates understanding and retention and promotes memorable learning experiences (Laureate Education. 1996). Visuals aids also promote metacognition. “When students represent their cognitive strategies with visual tools they practice metacognition” (Costa and Kallick, 2000, p. 48). As well, the use of visuals enables students to respond with wonderment, as they use their sensory pathways to find the world awesome, mysterious and intriguing.

In addition to visual aids, this lesson includes collaborative group activities. Collaborative grouping encourages students to work cooperatively to apply and connect science concepts. In this lesson, students are placed into groups to research, organize and present information on why scientists might use transformed bacteria. Students work as a team to gather and analyze information obtained from essential web sites. Upon completion each group will present real examples of how scientists use transformation in various areas including (medical, aquatic, agricultural, forensics, etc). Group activities are an excellent means for students to check for accuracy. In this learner’s classes learning groups consist of 3-4 students enabling at least three people to check work before submitting assignments to the teacher, which ensures accuracy (Laureate Education, 1996).

As well, while working in groups students tend to efficaciously stick to a task until it is completed exhibiting persistence. Within groups students are able to analyze a problem, to develop a system, structure, or strategy to attack a problem. Persistence allows students to employ a range and have repertoire of alternative strategies for problem solving (Costa and Kallick, 2000 & 2001). Additionally, collaborative groups forces students to manage impulsivity. In this learner’s experience, working in groups enables students to be effective problem solvers. According to Costa and Kallick (2001) individuals that manage impulsivity have a sense of deliberativeness and think before they take action. Learning groups allows students to form a vision, make an action plan, and set goals. Managing impulsivity causes learners to “strive to clarify and understand directions, develop a strategy for approaching a problem and withhold immediate value judgments about an idea before fully understanding it” (Costa and Kallick, 2001, p. 3).

Also, learning groups encourages students to listen with understanding and empathy. Effective groups spend an inordinate amount of time ad effort listening to each other enabling them to recognize the diverse perspectives of others (thus eliciting flexible thinking). According to Costa and Kallick (2001) flexible thinkers are able to shift, at will, through multiple perceptual positions. Most importantly, effective learning groups strive for accuracy and precision; think independently; and think and communicate with clarity. Some students will often submit sloppy incomplete assignments that do not communicate the goals or the assignment. However, working in groups there is typically one student that will promote accuracy and precision for the team. In groups each student is willing to contribute time and energy to the tasks whereas alone that student would likely tire or loose interest quickly (Costa and Kallick, 2000).

To further enhance science skills this lesson supports modeling. Students will model (by making computer simulations, posters, or 3-D models) the changes made to a DNA molecule when an animal cell is transformed. Modeling (just as collaborative grouping) grants students the opportunity to strive for accuracy and precision. As well it encourages student to finding humor by encouraging their whimsical, incongruous and unexpected creativity (Costa and Kallick, 2000). In conjunction, modeling enables students to generate new and novel ideas, fluency, originality that encourages creativity, imagination, and innovation (Costa and Kallick, 2001). Most importantly, modeling encourages students to access prior knowledge and transfer that knowledge beyond the situation in which it was learned by generating models (Laureate Education, 1996).

The last activity in this lesson allows students to experience practical applications of science concepts via laboratory activities. Using laboratory activities enables students to transform theoretical information urinary into tangible application related to the real world. Laboratory investigations are always highly anticipated by this learner’s science students. The laboratory investigation in this lesson allows students to use the processes of transformation to create a transgenic fly. In the activity students conduct a virtual lab that will familiarize them with science and techniques used to make transgenic flies. Without the use of this virtual lab activities students (at the high school level) could not experience the processes and techniques used to create a transgenic fly. However, with the use of technology several alternatives are possible via CD-ROMS, DVDs, the Internet and virtual laboratory investigations.

Computer simulation has put a new spin on science education. Akpan (2001) suggest that computer simulations provide advantages over natural events in that simulations bring a sense of immediacy to the learning objectives and challenge students to actively participate. This learner supports that computer simulations enable all students to equally participate in the laboratory investigation. According to Akpan (2001), computer simulations provide a model whereby students play a direct role in the investigation by interacting with the computer. Additionally Akpan (2001), suggest that effective computer simulations should elicit various habits of the mind including: gathering data through all senses and questioning and problem posing.

As discussed previously in this paper, sensory pathways allows information to be processed by the brain and can be achieved when students engage in activities that stimulate their senses. However, this learner supports that the most important habit of mind elicited during lab experiences are questioning and problem solving. Inclination and ability to solve problems are essential to students in science labs (Akpan, 2001). Effective problem solvers know how to ask questions and pose problems (Costa and Kallick, 2000).

Conclusion

In this learner’s opinion, the components of this lesson stimulate all types of students’ interest while facilitating learning and habits of minds. In today’s inclusive settings, it is important for educators to be able to modify their lesson plans to accommodate all types of learners and eliciting several habits of minds. Employing Habits of Mind requires drawing forth certain patterns of intellectual behavior that produce powerful results. In this learner’s opinion students must be train to think intelligently when confronted with problems or difficulties. The 16 habits of mind teach individuals to have a disposition toward behaving intelligently when confronted with problems (Costa and Kallick, 2001). According to Costa and Kallick (2000), the classroom and other learning environments are essential places to activate and engage habits of mind. Typically, teachers elicit habits of minds via engaging learning activities (similar to those in above lesson).

References:

Akpan, J. P. (2001). Issues associated with inserting computer simulations into biology instruction: A review of literature. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 5(3) Retrieved 01-17-08 from the World Wide Web: http://unr.edu/homepage/crowther/ejse/ejsev5n3.html

Costa, A. L., & Kallick, B. (Eds.). (2000). Activating & engaging habits of mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Costa, A. L. & Kallick, B. (2001) Describing 16 Habits of Mind. The Habits of Mind Web site. Retrieved 01/12/08 from http://www.habits-of-mind.net/.

Florida Department of Education. (2005). Sunshine State Standards: Science. Retrieved 01-18-08 from http://www.firn.edu/doe/curric/prek12/pdk/science9.pdf

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (1996). Helping students become self-directed learners. [Video recording]. Los Angeles: Author.

National Educational Technology Standards [NETS]. (2005). National Educational Technology Standards: Connecting Curriculum and Technology. Retrieved 01- 17-08 from http://cnets.iste.org/