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Created By: Kienna Knowles

Course: EDUC-6610-T2004 Teacher As Professional

Course Instructor: Evelyn Thompson

Technology Standard 1: Technology Operations & Concepts

Program Outcome: S1.2: Demonstrate continual growth in technology knowledge and skills to stay abreast of current and emerging technologies.


The performance indicator (S1.2) expects teachers to demonstrate continual growth in technology knowledge and skills. Technology is ever changing and educators must stay abreast of current and emerging technologies that are effecting and changing how things are done. Realizing the importance and convenience of using technology, this learner uses the Internet to stay abreast about emerging technologies used in education.

The following is an annotated bibliography that displays reviews of current research related to digital science education, online and distant learning. In this course, learners were exposed to several technologies that allowed expansion and enhancement of technology knowledge and skills. From this assignment, several useful web sites and technologies were obtained and shared with other teachers and administrations on the emerging trend of online learning. As a result, this learner was able to convince the school’s magnet program to purchase Blackboard for teachers seeking to move their classes (partially) into online/distant learning environments. To maintain a high level of technology proficiency learners must locate resources that will keep them abreast to new and emerging technologies.

Title: (Annotated Bibliography) New Trends in Education: Distant, Virtual and Online Learning

Apkan, J. (2002). Which Comes First: Computer Simulated Dissections or Traditional Laboratory Practical Method of Dissection. Electronic Journal of Science Education, (6)(4). Retrieved April 2, 2007 from

  Apkan attempts to shed light on the conflict that has arisen over the use of animals in the science laboratory of American schools. Animal protection advocates and some science teachers are at odds as to the importance and benefit of animal dissections to learning. To date, no research study or data was been able to resolve this issue. In this research study, Apkan examines the impact of using a computer-simulated model of an earthworm dissection as an alternative or supplement to an actual dissection. This quantitative study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of computer simulations (either before or after dissection) versus the traditional hands-on laboratory method of dissection when used as a delivery technique for the understanding of the physiological and anatomical systems of earthworm. At the conclusion of the experiment, Apkan compared the knowledge gained between the experimental group and the control group. The results of this research revealed, that the experimental group, that used interactive computer simulation of dissection, before actual hands-on dissection, experienced greater gain on a paper and pencil test of knowledge than did the control condition that dissected earthworms by hand. This provides support that prior use of a simulation before traditional dissections can improve learning. With the new push for technology in science education, data on the importance and benefit of computer simulations are useful to science educator nation wide.

Zagado, M. (2006). Creighton Addresses Pharmacist Shortage Through Technology. American Associations of Colleges of Pharmacy, (37)(5). Retrieved April 2, 2007 from ebArticle.asp.

Creighton University has broken ground in pharmacy education. As of today, Creighton University offers the first and only accredited Doctor of Pharmacy Program Distance Pathway (Online Pharmacy Program) providing a full-time educational method to obtain a Doctor of Pharmacy degree. This innovative pathway covers the same material as the traditional on-campus pathway, but allows students to take didactic coursework using distance mechanisms. Students complete the laboratory courses in a condensed manner during the summers. The on-campus laboratory sessions last for 1-2 weeks. Students take their classes from home via course web sites with audio and video feeds on the Internet and CD-ROM. They correspond with faculty and fellow students through e-mail, chat rooms, instant messaging and by telephone. Each student has a faculty advisor as well as an instructional mentor for basic biomedical and pharmaceutical science courses. In addition to a weeklong Orientation on the Creighton campus, students attend an intense two-week to three-week laboratory session for three summers at Creighton, which fulfills their hands-on laboratory requirements. Students may also do clinical rotations near their home provided the School has approved affiliations with clinical sites in the area, otherwise students will return to Omaha for the fourth (P4) year. The pathway is predominantly self-study in which the student can review the audio materials from the classes according to their own schedules; however, there is a schedule of classes and tests. The curriculum is the same as the campus pathway but some classes may vary slightly in the order they are given. Testing is done at approved testing sites with students using specific testing software provided for student use at the approved testing site. The current enrollment across all four professional years of web students is 226, 149 females and 80 males, who represent 38 states. The average age of the web-based student is 33 years of age compared to 28 years of age in the campus program.

Masters, K & Oberprieler, G. (2004). Encouraging equitable online participation through curriculum articulation. Computers & Education, (42)(4), pp. 319 332. Retrieved April 2, 2007 from ScienceDirect databases.

One of the perks to distant education is that students can conveniently learn from home on their own unique schedules. However, because of this aspect debates have arisen as to how effective distant education is to student participation. In most instances, program directors and course developers want to increase the amount of participation, while ensuring that the quality is of an acceptable standard. They also want to ensure that students in distant education programs have adequate access to the technology. Masters and Oberprieler examine various strategies, most of these focus on the awarding or denial of marks. In this experiment, first year Health Science students were introduced to a new curriculum. The first year students from four courses: (1) Communication Sciences and Disorders, (2) Medical Doctors (MBChB), (2) Occupational Therapy, and (4) Physiotherapy, were initiated into the new curriculum consisting of online discussions as part of an Information Technology/Information Literacy (IT/IL) stream in their curriculum using WebCT. Traditionally, online participation is ensure by awarding marks (grades). These authors, however, wanted examine how online participation could be encouraged without recourse to traditional practice. In their study, Masters and Oberprierler we were able to obtain large-scale and equitable participation across the student body by implementing the following: (1) ensuring the students were IT literate, (2) drawing on the methods, philosophy and content of the main stream, (3) asking questions that were important to the students’ course of study and structured in a way to encourage free and open debate, and (4) allowing unhindered debate. As a result, during and at the end of the study, the number of postings and the spread of postings showed an acceptable level of equitable participation across the student body. The main conclusion is this type of participation proved to be effective in promoting student participation in online discussions. Finegold, A. and

Cooke, L. (2006). Exploring the attitudes, experiences and dynamics of interaction in online groups. The Internet and Higher Education, (9)(3), pp. 201-215. Retrieved April 2, 2007 from ScienceDirect database.

The rise in online education popularity is indeed a new and growing trend in education. As more professional and working students are seeking distant education programs, more universities are accommodating them and seeking data/research that could improve their current programs. Particularly, universities are seeking to improve student experiences and communication. In this article, Fingold and Cooke examined the attitudes, experiences and dynamics of interaction of students working in online groups. This was achieved through a case study consisting of postgraduate Information Studies students using the WebCT discussion board at City University. The research was conducted in the 2004–2005 academic school year in which both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed including: questionnaires, interviews, document analysis, and discussion board analysis. The findings highlight the significance of group member participation, collegiality, and familiarity among group members. Other data revealed that students enjoyed working in online groups and found the discussion board useful, but often gave preference to other communication methods. Lecturer presence in online groups was found to be important to students, but interaction on the group discussion board was mostly student-centered. The most common types of interactions involved non-referential topic-related information, opinion, and solidarity. Currently several online or distant education programs utilize hybrid (partially distant and partially face to face) courses to ensure meaningful student discussion and interactions are taking place. From this research, online program directors and course developers have relevant data that supports the benefit and success of online student communication and discussions, thus, realizing that meaningful discussions and student communication can take place in arena where students are not face-to-face.

Connors, S. A. (2006). A comparison of two graduate program designs: Augmenting face-to-face instruction with online learning and blending online learning with face-to-face instruction. Ph.D. dissertation, George Mason University. Retrieved April 2, 2007, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 3208949).

In an effort to infuse meaningful technology into classrooms, Connors examined two online instructional designs asking: “Which of the online environments---face-to-face instruction augmented with online instruction or face-to-face instruction blended with online instruction---most positively impacted learner's attitudes, beliefs, and practices? (Connors, 2006).” This study attempted to answer this question via comparing two different instructional designs currently being utilized in the Integration of Technology in Schools (ITS) Master's Program at George Mason University (GMU). The study was conducted using 51 graduate students in the ITS program at GMU, who were divided into two groups. Group A, used an augmented instruction, receiving instruction primarily in a face-to-face environment with one semester being conducted in an online environment. Group B, used blended instruction, receiving half of their instruction in an online environment with the other half in a face-to-face environment. At the end of the semester selected participants were interviewed. Additionally, participant’s transcripts were analyzed for comparison between their current course design and the traditional courses they had previously taken at the university. Finally, information was obtained from the participants' reflected their attitudes and beliefs concerning their online learning experiences. Collectively, the findings showed that there were no significant differences between the groups A and B. Based upon these results, Connors suggest that both design models are viable for instruction and are useful in implementing technology into classrooms for the Integration of Technology in Schools graduate program, as well as other learning programs nationwide.